Hazrath Shaik – UL – Islam
Moulana Mohammed Anwarullah Farooqui (RH)
” Personality, Academic & Literary Works ”
By. Dr. Mohammed Abdul Hameed Akbar
The title of the thesis is self evident. In this thesis, the life, personality, thoughts, knowledge and greatness and authority in urdu prose and poetry of Moulana, has been presented. It was the need of the time and circumstances, to undertake the research work about the academic and literary achievements of Moulana, which was not done before in urdu literature. Though, some matter about Moulana has been presented in this respect. Such as, Dr. Akbaruddin Siddiqui has portrayed his impressions about academic and literary services of Moulana in his book called as "Mashaheer-e-Quandhar”. One important article on "Sufism” written by Moulana is included in a publication entitled "Hyderabad Ke Adeeb” Vol. 11 (1900 to 1960 A.D.) edited by Dr. Zeenath Sajeda. She has praised the Moulana for his distinguished academic and literary career. One of the Moulana’s favourite protegies, Mufti Mohammed Ruknuddin is the author of "Matla-Ul-Anwar”. In which, the life and academic works are recorded. An article as named ”Moulana Anwarullah Khan” by Tamkeen Kazimi, has been published in "Shakhsiyat Number” of the "Nuquoosh” Lahore. The writer has praised the personality of Moulana, his ability and interest in poetry. One manuscript named as "Noor-Ul-Anwar” scribed by Moulana Qutub Moinuddin Ansari, is in safe custody of Hazrath Sajjada Nasheen of Dargah Hazrath Raju Quattal Hussaini (RH) Hyderabad. In this manuscript, the matter has been collected regarding the life and work of Moulana, his academic and practical life, reforms towards the muslims, the grooming of Asifi rulers, religious and political reforms in Deccan.
These are the only books, journals and articles, in which we find some matter relating to Moulana’s personality, prose writings, poetry and other academic works. But it is strange to note that, so far, no research work has been undertaken in any University or academic institution of India, to highlight the personality and achievements of Moulana. I feel it is an obligation and favour of Allah The Almighty that a humble and meager person like me, has tried to undertake this valuable research work. However, this work has been completed after the year’s hard work. In this connection, I have visited may libraries of Hyderabad. Such as, Salarjung library, Osmania University Library, Asifya Library, Library of Idara-e-Adabiyat-e-Urdu, Library of Jame Nizamia and even Library of Dargah Bandanawaz of Gulbarga and Public Library Bidar to collect material of my thesis. Besides, I made personal contacts with Scholars and men of letters of Hyderabad. As a result, I culd get a manuscript of Moulana’s poetry named as "Kalam-e-Anwar” from Idara-e-Adabiyat-e-Urdu Hyderabad. In this manuscript some unpublished verses are included. The photo copy of unpulished verses is included in this thesis.
Moulana Anwarullah Khan’s period starts after the first war of Independence. At that time, Mighty Moghal Empire had collapsed. As a result, Muslim Civilization suffered decadence and urdu language and literature also was about to decline. At that time, fore-runners of urdu literature, such as Moulana Mohammed Hussain Azad, Sir Syed, Shibli and Hali were catering towards development of this embryonic language and literature through their literary compositions and compilations. The British Government was also watching the scene keenly. Hyderabad, which forms as an important part of Deccan was making headway towards progress under the royal patronage of Late Mehboob Ali Khan the sixth ruler of Asifi Kingdom. In this context, Moulana Anwarullah Khan Farooqui has left behind his valuable compositions and collections of poetry named as "Shameem-Ul-Anwar” to serve the nation, which is an important source of this period of decadence.
Indeed, the purpose to compile this thesis is to highlight the academic, reformative and literary works, particularly, his writings in prose.
This thesis comprises five chapters. First chapter has two parts. The first part deals with the life of Moulana. The personality of Moulana is dealt with in the second part. In the first part, under the life, lineage, genealogical chart, native place, birth, child-hood, home atmosphere, education and training, Baiat (Initiation as a saint’s disciple), marriage, Issues and disciples, search for livli-hood, employment, resignation, publication of Maquasid-ul-Islam, educational and reformative services, journey, establishment of Madrasa-e-Nizamia and Dairat-ul-Ma-arif, Quadiyani movement and his role in refutation, comments on views and thoughts of Sir Syed and Shibli, struggle for Quaza-at issue and other reformative affairs. Acceptance of the post of Sadrus-sudoor and title of Fazeelat Jung, severe illness and sad demise and his spiritual activities etc. are mentioned in detail.
Under second part of the first chapter, the study of Moulana’s personality, learning, faith, school of thought, abandonment, fear of Allah etc. are discussed. In the same part, Moulana as mentor of rulers of Deccan, Moulana as an authority in Islamic studies and his greatness is also dealt. In order to implement the Islamic tenets, practical proposals of Moulana are discussed in detail.
The second chapter is divided in three parts. The first part deals with the back-ground of his ideas and thoughts. By this, we can guage the Innovative vision of Moulana during his period. In the second part "Sufism” and its evolutionary history is dealt. In "Sufism” he is in favour of "Wahdat-ul-Wujood” (Unity of being). An attempt has been made to present his ideas and thoughts about different topics of "Sufism” such as, Nafs-e-Natequa, Wajd (ecstasy), Sama, Jabr-o-Taqdir khush khulqui (good manner), Sulh pasandi (amity) Tasleem-o-Riza (Subservience) etc.
In the third part, under "Reforms” different topics, such as social reforms, reforms of faith and views, reforms of shrines (dargas) and the training of Sajjadagan are discussed in detail.
In third chapter, Moulana’s comments and way of argument on Tafseer, Hadith, Fiqua, Logic, Kalam and literature, selection of subjects in poetry, usage of metres, variety in verses and his poetic characteristics are fully dealt.
The fourth chapter is reserved for compositions and creations of Moulana. In which, the list of the books and important subjects of each book are mentioned in brief. The total impact of Moulana’s writings is towards character building and moral up-grading. The main object of his creations is the alround development of humanity. An attempt has been made to review the characteristics of his writings in each book.
The fifth chapter is an important one comprising his "Individual style of writings”. Being an author of many books he has covered different subjects. I am more interested in his style of writings, rather than the contents of his compositions. I have strived to show, how much he has contributed in this direction. The consistency of his style in all his writings, is an integral form which evolves his characteristic technique. In order to portray this phenomenon, the definition and nature of style is mentioned in this chapter. The elements of literature and thoughts are also discussed. Then an artistic analysis of style has been made on the basis of different extracts of his writings.
Lastly, the place of Moulana in Urdu literature is determined. I am of the opinion that his unique style predominates over the contents and his can not be denied in the growth of urdu prose. I am confident that the academic and literary contributions of Moulana will be ever appreciated.
The Index is prepared alphabetically on the basis of the sources and books, which were under study during the preparation of this thesis.